考研英语作文29300字：Literal Translation And Free Translataion,Literal Translatioliteral translation and free translataion 英语作文网整理收集 [thesis]
how to use literal translation and free translation proper?
people often discuss literal translation and free translation. we lay stress on how to handle two different kinds of language. and which way of translation is better to use to translation a sentence. especially, target language must epress what source language meams, distortion is not allowed. literal translation and free translation are two main forms of translation. they are not repulsive, contrarily, they are complementary. translation literally,if possible,or appeal to free translation. literal translation retains original skill. so it is get on for original. when literal translation, encounter some obstades, people often use free translation.free translation epresses general idea of the original, and can be accepted by readers. a good translation composition contains literal translation and free translation. [content]
1. what is the conception of literal translation and free translation?2. how to use literal translation properly?2.1 translate literally,if possible.2.2 literal translation≠word-for-word translation.2.3 some sentences should not translate literally.3. how to use free translation properly?3.1 if it has some trouble to understand a sentence in using literal translation, use free translation.3.2 don not add personal enmotion to the original works.3.3 free translation skill needs etensive knowledge and culture of both source language and target language.
if use literal translation and free translation proper, you will success in translating a composition.
literal translation/free translation/source language/targer
1. what is the conception of literal translation and free translation?literal translation and free translation are two basic skills of translation. literal translation refers to translate a sentence originally, keep the original message form, including construction of sentence, meaning of the original words, metaphor of the original and so on. translation would be fluent and easy to comprehend by target language readers. free translation refers to, according to the meaning of the original, without paying attention to the details and translation would also be fluent and natural. free translation need not pay attention to the form of the original, including construction of the original sentences,meaning of the original works, matapher of the original and so on . but free translation does not mean to delete or add content to the original and translators must consider the original carefully, know its stress, translate it natually, epress the meaning of the original. free translation is a skill which translators must know the culture of both source language and target language, and must have etensive knowledge.
when translating, should not use literal translation completely or use free translation completely. according to the passage which you are translating, you should use literal translation frequently and use free translation when neccessary.
but what kind of translation is literal translation? and what kind of translation is free translation?
for eample:①1) dont lock the stable door after the hourses has been stolen.literal translation: 不要等马被盗后,才去锁楖门.free translation: 不要贼走关门.2) smashing a mirror is no way to make an ugly person beautiful, nor it is a way to make social problem evaporate.literal translation: 砸镜子不能使丑八怪变漂亮,也不能使社会问题烟消云散.free translation: 砸镜子并不能解决实际问题.form the eample 1), free translation is better than literal translation. from the eample 2), literal translation is better than free translation. but how to use literal translation and free translation? there is a sentence:translate literally,if possible, or appeal to free translation.
2. how to use literal translation properly?
2.1 translate literally, if possible.why translate, if possible? what is the advantage of literal translation? generally, rhetoric is often used in a passage to make the passage lively. literal translation retains the rhetoric of the original, so it is lively as the original. but free translation only epresses the general idea of original, lively rhetoric of the original disappeared. so generally speaking, literal translation is a good choice in translation.
for eample:②3) for ma father know and i know that if you only dig enough a pasture can be made free.literal translation: 因为我父亲知道,我也知道,只要挖到一定程度,早晚可以在这里辟出个牧场的.free translation: 因为我父亲知道,我也知道,功到自然成.4) for kino and juana this was the meaning of morning of their lives, comparable only to the day when the baby had been born.literal translation: 在kino和juana看来,这是他们一生中最了不起的早晨,只有宝宝出生的那一天,才可以与之媲美.free translation: kino和juana以为,这一天非常重要.
free translation of eamples 3) and 4), only epress the general idea of the original sentences. it is too simple. metaphor and discribtion of the original sentences hava dissappeared. after free translation, it was inferior and dull. so it is undesirable. but the literal translation of eample 3) and 4) is clearer than the free translation. actually, literal translation is the chief way of translation. it is close to the original, lively and natural. it is acceptable. acceptableness is very important in translation. from theory of translation angle, translation is a theroy which uses target language to epress the idea, content and style of source language.it should accord with the culture and customs of the target language. translation not only does epress the idea and style of the original message, but also need to accord with the culture and customs of the target language, so that the translation can easy be accepted by target language readers. because the differences of two languages, sometimes it is difficult to retain the idea and style of the source language. the advantage of literal translation is that almostly retain the idea and style of the original. so most of translators like to use literal translation.
from all above, that is the reason of translate literally, if possible.
2.2 literal translation≠word-for-word translation.at first, which kind of translation is word-for-word translation? word-for-word translation is that: when translating, consider every words. every words of source language is translated cooridnatly.
for eample:③5) it was an old and ragged moon.word-for-word translation: 那是一个又老又破的月亮.6) many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth.word-for-word translation: 他的许多思想对当代青年特别有趣.from the eample 5) and 6), we know word-for-word translation does not do any changes to source language. the form is close to the original, but it does not epress the meaning of the source language. strictly speaking, it is not translation. nevertheless, some translation which did some change to source language and the structure of target language is also the same as source language, the translation is smooth, but the meaning and the style are far from the original, usually, target language readers did not know what it said. this is also word-for-word translation.
for eample: ④7) every atom of your flesh is as dear to me as my own: in pain and sickness it would still be dear.word-for-word translation: 你的肉中的每一个原子，对我来说，都像我自己一样亲；即使在病痛中，仍然是亲的.8) being a teacher is being present at the creation, when the clay begin to peathe.word-for-word translation: 当一名教师意味着是创造的见证人，他目睹人体开始呼吸，开始了生命.
translation of 7) and 8) are smooth. but they do not accord with the epressive way of chinese. it is word-for-word translation.
from all above, word-for-word translation is so starchy, goes after the form of source language that it never think of the effect of target language. because word-for-word translation does not accord with the epressive way of target language, it is obscure, hard to understand it even makes target language readers did not know what does translator want to epress. word-for-word translation makes target language readers confused. it is unqualified translation.
literal translation also keeps the general form of source language,and keeps the structure and the metaphor of the original. but literal translation does make some neccessary adjustment, make target language smooth, clean and acceptable. after reading, target language readers can have almost the same feeling as the source language readers. but word-for-word translation only translate word by word, it is stiff and unitelligible. quality of literal translation is good. word-for-word translation is inferior. literal translation and word-for-word translation can give different feeling to target language readers. all translation which is hard to accept, which have bad effect, which message is indistinct, which meaning is far from the original is word-for-word translation. this kind of translation is abortive.
some translation though that all translation keeps the form of the original is literal translation. that is erroneous. they confuse the conception of literal translation with word-for-word translation. these translators translate like this: first, they look up the meaning of every word of source language in dictionary. then, they combine the meaning of every word, never do any change. they do not know what translation is, so word-for-word translation emerge. but ecellent translators know the meaning of the original. when translating, they do some neccessary adjustment, make target language clearer, smooth and acceptable. they know the difference between word-for-word translation and literal translation. they can use literal translation properly, it is a skill of translation.
all in all. literal translation is not word-for-word translation. literal translation is acceptable and nimble.
2.3 some sentences should not translate literally.
some source language sentences are very difficult to translate literally. it only though of the meaning of surface, translate it literally, the result is unintelligible and indistinct. some sentences do not accord with epressive way in target language. different country has different culture,different language, different custom and different way to epress the same meaning, different language has different way about metaphors, and has different idioms. in china, people usually use some idioms to describe an event or a person. so do in apoad. but chinese idioms are unintelligible in western countries. in these suituations, if translate literally, usually, it would have bad effect and be unacceptable. when target language readers read, they could not know the eact meaning of source language. because the message which target language epress was vague.
there are two eamples: ⑤9) our son must go to school. he must peak out of the pot that hold us in.literal translation: 我们的儿子一定得进学校，他一定得打破这个把我们关在里面的罐子. free translation: 我们的儿子一定要上学，一定要出人头地.10) their legs mored a little jerkily, like well-made wooden dolls, and they carried pillars of blank fear about them. literal translation: 他的腿轻轻痉挛地移动着，像做得很好的木偶一样，他们随身携带着黑色的恐怖柱子.free translation: 他们每向前迈一步，腿就抖动一下，好似精制的木偶一样，他们身上带着一股阴沉的杀气.
from the two eamples, literal translation is unintelligible even absurd. but after had translated it freely, translation became cleaner, smooth, acceptable and accord with the culture of target language.
but in which suituation translators should not translate literally? how to use literal translation correctly?
any source language which does not accord with the epressive way of target language should not use literal translation. for eample: in eample 9), peak out the pot that hole us in, it is an english idiom, it means do something successful. but how to translate it into chines?there is also an idiom in china. it almost has the same meaning aspeak out of the pot that hold us in. it is 出人头地. so when translating that sentence translators should not use literal translation, translators should use free translation.
and how to use literal translation correctly? first, know source language and target language culture as much as possible and translators should have etensive knowledge with the problems which the original wrote or talk about, translators should be conversant. we often have eperience like that: because lake of some knowledge that somebody talking about, even after others eplained, we still did not know or understand. so before translators translating some materials, especially some proffessional materials translators must grasp some knowledge about the materials. for eample, if translate some materials about economy,translators should know some knowledge about economy; if translate some material about news, translators should know some knowledge about news;if translate some professional materials,translators should know some knowledge about that proffession, or be an eport of that proffession. if translator was a man who did not know something about the material which he wanted to translate, his translation would be unqualified. second, comprehend source language message correctly and thoroughly. it is very important. translators should not only know the surface meaning of the original and translators should read through the surface, know what does the original want to epress. if a translator does only know surface meaning of the original and translate it literally, his translation would be correspondingly. after target language reader read his translation, they would be confuse and have different feeling between the original and the translation or even have erroneous comprehension.
translation is different from reading. when we reading, it no matter how much we understand or can be understand or have erroneous comprehension. because level of the readers is limited. reading is only a feeling of himself. but translation affects others. instead of the original author, translation is a man retell source language massage to target language. so translators should comprehened the source language message deeply and thoroughly, then retell the meaning of the source language correctly and close to the source language message. if a translator comprehened the source language just a little nmbiguiously,translation would be different from the source language message. therefore, comprehension is very important. if translators had false comprehension to the source language message, his translation could be far from the original. this will lead his translation to be unqualified.
at last, enhance acceptability of translation. from above we know that translation should accord with the epressive way of target language, so that it can be easily accepted by target language readers. actually, it is not difficult to retain the style of the original. but it is difficult to translate the original accord with target language epressive way. a translator who has abandant eperience can surmount obstacle between two language. an ecellent translator must have done his best effort on his translation. this is translators duty. an ecellent translator has practised a lot on how to handle the problems in translation. ecellent translation are acceptable.
from all above, literal translation is a basic skill of translation. it keeps the form of source language, including construction of sentences, mataphor. sometimes it should do some neccessary change to the original, make the translation accord with the epressive way of target language. so make the translation acceptable. a translation which translated literally is close to the original. but literal translation is not omnipotent. some sentences should not translate literally, because these sentences contained idioms which are different in source language and target language. translators should have etensive knowledge. comprehened source language message correctly and thoroughly, enhance acceptability of translation. if translators want to use literal translation properly and skillfully, they must comprehened all above, and have some practice. after all, practise is the most important aspect in translation.
3. how to use free translation properly?
3.1 if it was some trouble to understand a sentence in using literal translation, use free translation.
in which suituation the translators can not use literal translation? when some sentences that the way of epressive between source language and target language are different, should not use literal translation. if use literal translation, target language readers would have some trouble to understand, then make the translation unacceptable. in these suituation, free translation should in use. free translation epresses the general idea of the original according to the meaning of the original, and does not pay attention to the details. but translation should be fluent and natural.
there are two eamples:⑥11) i gave my youth to the sea and i came home and gave her ( my wife ) my old age.literal translation: 我把青春献给海洋，我回家的时候便把老年给了我的妻子.free translation: 我把青春献给海洋，等我回到家里见到妻子的时候，已经是白发苍苍了.12) maybe kino has cut off his own head and destroyed himself.literal translation: 也许kino会割掉自己的脑袋，把自己毁了.free translation: 也许kino走了绝路，自己毁了自己.
from the eample 12), the original cut off his head means have done something badly, felt into predicament. if a translator translated the original literally, his translating would make target language readers confused, after reading, target language readers would feel unacceptable. so translators should use free translation in the eample 11) and 12). because free translation can tell the ture meaning to target language readers.
some sentences, if translate literally are also fluent and natural that it seems these sentences should translate literally. but translated these sentences literally could not epress the deep meaning of the original. if we use free translation,effect would be better than literal translation. free translation could epress the deep meaning of the original sentences.
for eample: ⑦13) cast pearls before swine.literal translation: 把珍珠扔到猪面前.free translation: 对牛弹琴.14) barbara was born with a silver spoon in her mouth.literal translation: barbara嘴里叼着银调羹出生的.free translation: barbara出生最富贵人家.
eample 13) and 14) are metaphor, have deep moral. if translated literally, translations are fluent and natural, but it could not epress the deep meaning of the oroginal, it is unadvisable.
there is another suituation which should use free translation: a sentense that use idioms.
for eample:⑧15) something unepected may happen ang time.free translation: 天有不测风云.literal translation: 一些没有预料到的事会随时发生.
in english, this sentence is very common. but if translated it literally into chinese, it did not accord with the habit of epressive. on the contrarary, it would be unitelligible and would not achive the effect of the original. it would make target language readers inappreciatable. but in the eample 15), free translation used a chinese idioms, after reading target language readers would comprehened and have nice feeling. so free translation is a good choice when literal translation could not be used.
3.2 don not add personal emotion to the original works.
translation is a pige between source language and target language. task of translation is to epress the meaning and manifestation of the source language message by target language. the translation should give target language readers almost the same feeling as source language readers. if target language readers and source language readers had almost the same feeling after reading the translation, it was successful. if target language readers and source language readers had different feeling after reading the translation, it showed the translation was unqualified. from the angle of translation, actually, the feeling of readers can judge a translation. so the feeling of readers is the standard of translation.
tough free translation gives some leeways to translators. translators should comprehened the original thoroughly, and use the leeways correctly. some translators usually use the leeways incorrectly. they often add their personal emotion to the original works. so translation was subjunctive and different as the original. it was unqualified translation. because if translators added their personal emotion to the original works that the meaning of the original message had been changed by translators. after reading, target language readers might have different feeling between translation and the original. those translations which added translators own emotion were not according with the standard of translation. translation should avoid to add personal emotion to the original works.
3.3 free translation skill needs etensive knowledge and culture of both source language and target language.
free translation gives translators some leeways. translators should use then correctly. not only should translators comprehened the meaning of the original message, but also they should be provided with etensive knowledge and culture of both source language and target language. especially, on literature works, translators should be provided with literature training, and they also should know etensive literature knowledge. a translator who wanted to translate a literature composition should do his effort to accumulate something about history, geography, custom, natural style and features, tranditional culture and so on about the literature composition. in additional, translators should know the background of age and the author, style of the anthor. more etensive knowledge the translators have, more thoroughly he can comprehend the meaning of the original.
free translation is a skill in translation. translators should first comprehend the original thoroughly, then translate it correctly by target language, and acceptablely comprehend the original thoroughly is on the basis of etensive knowledge and ecellent literature training. some successful translators, when they were translating they did the research on the original author at the same time. after translating, they became on epert to the author and his composition. this spirit is worthly to study.
lets see some eamples:⑨16) when the going gets tough, the tough getsgoing. free translation: 沧海横流方显英雄本色. the wordsgoing and tough have different meaning. the translator used a sentence in a chinese poem to translate this sentence.17) faults are thick where love is thin. free translation: 一朝情义淡, 样样不顺眼.18) you can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.free translation: 骗人一夕一事易,欺众一生一世难.19) out of the fullness of the heart the mouth speaks. free translation: 盈于心则溢于言.
the eample above are all free translation. translators translated them not only smoothly and fluently, but also acceptable and accordingly with chinese culture. in addition, translators should know etensive idioms about both source language and target language. different countries have different idioms. so in translation, some idioms are unable to translate literally. translators should change the original form into another form which is easy to be accepted by target language readers. thereby, convey the purpose of the original wanted to epress.
for eample: ⑩20) when in rome, do as the romes do. free translation: 入乡随俗. 21) a cat on hot picks.free translation: 热锅上的蚂蚁.22) to epect ones son to become an outstanding personage.free translation: 望子成龙.23) the dog that will feech a bone will carry a bone.free translation: 以你说别人坏话的人,也会说你的坏话.
free translation does not strachy the form of the original. if translators want to use free translation proficiently. youd better grasp etensive knowledge and culture of both source language and target language.
if using literal translation and free translation proper, you will succeed in translating a composition. the most important in translation is the way in which how to dear with the comple problems of equivalence between the source and target articles. but complete identity of message is important, even use literal translation on the designative level of imformative function one can only aim at the closet approrimotion and in general it is posible to obtain a functionally satisfactory correspondace.
literal translation is a good choice to translate lively and closely, as the original. it retains the idea, style and rhetoric of the original. translators should grasp it. literal translation is not word-for-word translation. sometimes, translators should do some change in translation so that they can make the translation more acceptable. word-for-word translation is unqualified. not all sentences can translate literally. some sentences, if used literal translation would not be according with the culture of target language. especially for some idioms. translators should have etensive knowledge, comprehend the original thoroughly. especially in translating some proffessional materials.
free translation is a skill. it need not pay more attention to the form of the original and the details. but free translation should accord with target language culture and customs. then target language readers can accept translation easily. though free tranlation gives leeways to translators, they should not add personal emotion to the original works. because if translators added their own emotion to the translation, target language readers and source language readers would have different feeling. so the translation is unqualified. free translation also needs etensive knowledge and culture of both source language and target language. translators should be proviede with literature training. especially knowing some idioms in both target language and source language is very important.
literal translation and free translation are two different way in translation. an ecellent translation includs this two kinds of translation. an ecellent translator could use these two kinds of way properly and proficiently. no translators can use literal translation and free translation proficiently at beginning. all successful translators have practised lots. when they were translating, they accumulated eperience and knowledge. after they have translated some composition, they accumulate etensive knowledge. so translators needs practise. and both content and style are insparaby linked in any tet, and success in translation means dealing creatively with both of these aspect of communication.
① p91 fanzhongyan 1994 foreign language teaching and researching press.② p92 fanzhongyan 1994 foreign language teaching and researching press.③ p88 fanzhongyan 1994 foreign language teaching and researching press.④ p88 fanzhongyan 1994 foreign language teaching and researching press.⑤ p102 fanzhongyan 1994 foreign language teaching and researching press.⑥ p92 fanzhongyan 1994 foreign language teaching and researching press.⑦ p95 fanzhongyan 1994 foreign language teaching and researching press.⑧ from:http://www.si-china.net/schools/maoya.htm⑨ from:http://www.si-china.net/schools/maoya.htm⑩ from:http://www.si-china.net/schools/maoya.htmabstract
this aretical is about literal translation and free translation and how to use literal translation and free translation properly. literal translation is a good choice to use, it keeps the original message form. but literal translation is not word-for-word translation. some sentences should not translate literally. because these sentences contain some idioms or not according with the custom of target language. then, translaors should use free translation. free translation is a translation skill which is active. but free translation can not add personal emotion to the original works. translation must be acceptable which use free translation. and free translation skill needs etensive knowledge and culture of both source language and target language. if a translator wants to use literal translation and free translation proficiently, practise is the most important.
fanzhongyan 1994 <an applied theory of translation foreign language teaching and researching press
<a new english-chinese dictionary 1985 shanghai translation press
nida,eugene a. 1991 translation:possible and impossible
elliott,marion peter strutt.<an english reader , william collins sons and co.ltd.,1984
zhuguangqian <talk about translation 1984 foreign language teaching and researching press
charlotte ponte <jane eyre shanghai translation pressliteral translation and free translataion 英语作文网整理收集